Once operational, the quantum computer will sweep away all the principles on which cryptography is currently based. The American standards agency therefore launched a major competition in 2016 to find algorithms capable of resisting it. Of the four winners, three teams include French researchers.
To find out who has the right to decipher or sign a message (Information theory was developed to mathematically determine the rate…)the cryptography (Cryptography is one of the disciplines of cryptology concerned with protecting messages…) public-key problem-based math (Mathematics is a field of abstract knowledge constructed using…) difficult and authorizes these operations only to those who hold the solution. Same time (Time is a concept developed by human beings to apprehend the…), everything (The whole understood as the whole of what exists is often interpreted as the world or…) the world (The word world can refer to:) must be able to encrypt a message or verify a signature of a given user. These processes, which are generally invisible and automatic, take place, for example, with each exchange of emails. Intruders, who do not have the correct answer in their possession, should not be able to perform the operation reverse (In mathematics, the inverse of an element x of a set endowed with a law of…) and thus calculate the solution that they do not have. Cryptography has therefore chosen a series of problems specifically because they are simple to solve in a meaning (SENS (Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence) is a scientific project which aims to…)but impossible in the other in a reasonable time, even with the most powerful computers.
However, the predicted rise of quantum computers has changed the situation. These will not simply be improved versions of our desktop computers: working with physical principles completely (Completion or completely automatic, or by anglicism completion or…) different, and beyond the single question of their Powerful (The word power is used in several fields with a particular meaning:), they will be able to solve certain problems much more easily, including those used by current cryptography. If for themoment (The instant designates the smallest constituent element of time. The instant is not…) the first demonstrators of quantum computers are still far from being able to carry out this kind of task, there is no question of waiting until they are to guard against such a risk.
This is why the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) – the American agency in charge of technological standards – launched in 2016 an international call for contributions to define security standards adapted to future (Futurs is a science fiction collection from Éditions de l’Aurore.) developments of thecomputer science (IT – contraction of information and automatic – is the domain…): post-quantum cryptography.
“NIST made this call at the request of the NSAprecise Pierre-Alain Fouqueprofessor at theUniversity of Rennes (The University of Rennes, is an old university which finds its origin in…) 1 and searcher (A researcher (fem. researcher) refers to a person whose job is to do research…) within theInstitute (An institute is a permanent organization created for a certain purpose. It is…) of research (Scientific research designates in the first place all the actions undertaken with a view to…) in computer science and random systems (IRISA – CNRS/University of Rennes 1). The military consider particularly long lifespans for safety: it takes twenty or thirty years to design and build a submarine (A submarine is a vessel capable of moving in three dimensions, below the surface of…), which will operate for several decades and whose communications must remain undecipherable for another twenty years after its withdrawal from service. However, it is reasonable to think that real quantum computers could emerge before all current military equipment is completely out of order.use (Usage is the act of making use of something.).”
The competition took place in several stages. Eighty-two projects were initially submitted, divided between two approaches. We first find the diagrams of encryption (In cryptography, encryption (sometimes incorrectly called encryption) is the process by which…) public key, which for example allow everyone to send an encrypted message to a person who will be the only one who can read it, then the generation of electronic signatures, which authenticate an act or document (In its current meaning, a document is generally defined as the physical support of a…). The NIST announced, on July 5, the results of the third round, where we find four candidates and eight alternative projects. Among the algorithms selected, CRYSTALS-KYBER is the only one to deal with public key encryption, while CRYSTALS-DILITHIUM, SPHINCS+ and FALCON, in which Pierre-Alain Fouque participates, are dedicated to the generation of electronic signatures.
“The idea is not to keep only one solution, quite the contraryinsists Pierre-Alain Fouque. The four schemes currently selected will be standardized, and some alternative candidates may join them later. It’s a way of not putting all our eggs in one basket.. Similarly, while three of the projects already selected relate to cryptography based on Euclidean networks, the fourth round also called for schemes based on other security hypotheses.“
Cryptography based on Euclidean lattices uses as a problem finding the shortest vector (In mathematics, a vector is an element of a vector space, which allows…) nonzero between two points, placed on a gate (A toaster is a small household appliance. A screen toaster is a…) in a space with many dimensions (In common sense, the notion of dimension refers to size; the dimensions of a room…). Based on this principle, FALCON has several advantages: its signature is for example 666 bytes, which is very little. This guarantees him better security on the networks because the signature can be sent at once, while for others it must be split between several IP packets. FALCON is also suitable for QR codes, which contain a maximum of 4000 bytes and therefore cannot afford to devote more than half of them to cryptography alone. Finally, it is also suitable for updates day (The day or the day is the interval which separates the sunrise from the sunset; it is the…) of hardware (Hardware is the set of…)the parties of which individually do not necessarily have enough memory (Generally speaking, memory is the storage of information. It is also remembering…) and power to verify the integrity of their software.
In addition to the complementarity of the solutions adopted by the NIST, the prevalence of French research is striking. Three of the four projects and two of the eight proposals alternatives (Alternatives (original title: Destiny Three Times) is a novel by Fritz Leiber published…) thus include scientists trained or working in France.
“It is a mark of the excellence of French research, a success due to the presence of several very lively schoolslists Pierre-Alain Fouque.” An ecosystem also fueled by initiatives such as the Priority Research Program and Equipment (PEPR) dedicated to quantum technologies, inaugurated on March 4 by the CNRS (The National Center for Scientific Research, better known by its acronym CNRS, is the largest…), Inria and the CEA. We also find there the project (A project is an irreversible commitment of uncertain result, not reproducible to…) PQ-TLS1worn by Pierre-Alain Fouque.
“Thirteen teams of cryptography researchers are involved in PQ-TLSexplains Pierre-Alain Fouque. There are two objectives. The first, more theoretical, consists in supporting the basic research of the various French teams working on new standards. From a point of seen (Sight is the sense that allows to observe and analyze the environment through reception and…) practice, we also provide knowledge transfer for cryptography professionals who have mastered the classical principles of it, but would be less comfortable with the quantum turn that the discipline is undergoing. train (A train is a guided vehicle running on rails. A train is composed of…) to operate.”
1 – Post quantum (In physics, a quantum (Latin word meaning “how much” and which is written…) transport layer security (Transport Layer Security (TLS), formerly known as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), is a…).
Pierre-Alain Fouque – Professor at theUniversity (A university is an institution of higher education whose objective is the…) Rennes 1, member of IRISA – pierre-alain.fouque at irisa.fr
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